Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Social Policy Essay Example for Free

Social Policy Essay Clarify the significance of the term ‘social policy’ and talk about how social strategy is applied by and by, drawing upon the significant achievements in the improvement of the British government assistance state. With the end goal of this task I plan to examine in extraordinary detail social strategy and how it is applied by and by, utilizing models from fundamentally intentional segments. I will likewise talk about the presentation of the Beverage report in 1948 and Margaret Thatcher’s move to the new right methodology in 1979 concerning being the two significant achievements inside the improvement of the government assistance state. Social Policy is an investigation of the social administrations and the government assistance express, the government assistance state being whatever assists individuals with recovering financially after difficulty, this isn't generally concerning cash it can now and again identify with assets. Social Policy it takes a gander at socially developed issues, for example, separate, joblessness, wrongdoing and it means to improve them by rolling out positive improvements. Social arrangement additionally takes a gander at helpless individuals in the public eye, for example, single guardians, old individuals, incapacitated individuals and takes a gander at manners by which they can be upheld. Social approach isn't generally enactment it very well may be taken a gander at additional along the lines of experimentation, practically like rules or points something to be moved in the direction of accomplishing. It isn't generally viable relying upon how advantageous or important it is and whether individuals decide to acclimate. Albeit most humanist wouldn’t concur on social strategy and the definitions may shift contingent upon whether the humanist is left or conservative. Left wing approach bolsters social uniformity and demoralizes progressive system, while paying special mind to and supporting distraught people inside society. As opposed to this is the conservative methodology which acknowledges progression and social disparities, and perspectives them as inescapable. It is a lot of a functionalist approach considering chain of command to be fundamental for society to work. Manners by which social approach is established are through activities, for example, The New Economic Foundation otherwise called the NEF they work with individuals inside society just as the administration, organizations and scholastic sources to help improve society in general handling all regions encompassing the nvironment, economy and society. NEF are an autonomous enlisted noble cause who are subsidized by, awards and gifts, singular adherents and earned pay â€Å"Our singular supporters gave an aggregate of ? 121,860 this year† (NEF, 2013). There is likewise David Cameron’s Big Society, which means to focus on government assistance being given more through willful segments instead of the express, this thus plans to give networks more command over issues, for example, open administrations, schools and lodging. It likewise energizes and monetarily bolsters individuals moving in the direction of a superior future, to empower them to improve their conditions. â€Å"A solid, different, all around promoted and feasible social speculation showcase in the UK, through which social segment associations can get to fitting and reasonable fund and backing to develop their effect on society. † (Big society, 2013) There are accepted to have been two significant achievements in the advancement of the British government assistance state, one of which was the execution of The Beverage report in 1948, this was presented by William Beveridge after the war to help look after control. The Beveridge report was a lot of a left wing approach, in view of and bolstered by social majority rule government, he had the possibility that everyone needs to cooperate so as to diminish imbalances and trusted it was the duty of the administration to help and bolster residents who required it. He distinguished 5 social disasters that should have been defeated with the end goal for society to work, Ignorance (instruction) , filth (lodging), (need), inaction (joblessness) lastly infection (wellbeing) with the end goal of his task I will focus on illness, this was battled by the presentation of the National Health Service, most regularly known as the NHS. This was presented in 1948 and gave free medicinal services to the state, it gave security from the support to the grave. The second of the significant achievements was Margaret Thatcher’s move to the new right methodology in 1979, as a traditionalist her methodology was a lot of a conservative methodology, she scrutinized the social majority rule government, she diminished government assistance spending and she auctions off committee houses. Margaret Thatcher additionally tested the technique for conveying government assistance. Social majority rule government which was supported by the UK government following the war depended on the hypothesis of John Keynesâ and was executed through the Beveridge report, this hypothesis trusted it was vital for the administration to intercede inside the economy and figured society should cooperate to help one another, the solid supporting the powerless. The new right hypothesis which was prevailing in 1979, bolstered the entrepreneur framework and trusted it was link of giving riches to everybody, they accept that the administration ought not mediate with the market framework by means of expenses, or government assistance as the market framework ensures costs and wages fulfill flexibly and need guaranteeing work for all. It sees the government assistance state as being pointless and despite the fact that it shouldn’t be killed altogether they trust it ought to follow a lingering model, which is fundamentally just the meriting poor ought to be given insignificant advantages, in this manner making the rich more extravagant and he poor more unfortunate. Margaret Thatcher’s testing demeanor towards the conveyance strategy for government assistance presented government assistance pluralism, otherwise called blended economy government assistance, implying that the government assistance isn't given distinctly by the state it is comprised of 4 unique areas. Government offices, which is the government assistance state, focal points of this would be that there is almost no opportunity of liquidation inside this division as the legislature can raise charges to keep up government assistance for the individuals who require it, along these lines of giving government assistance additionally guarantees that lone qualified people can work inside this segment keeping up an exclusive requirement of care which can be similarly dispersed all through the entire nation, the drawbacks of this technique for government assistance are that expert consideration, for example, old individuals is ignored and it is conceivable that they would profit more from deliberate consideration as opposed to the state, it makes higher expenses as individuals presently have longer futures and it can likewise make reliance upon the state giving individuals no inspiration. Willful Organizations, which is good cause this can be less expensive as volunteers and gifts are util ized, and as recently talked about can take care of explicit needs better than the state, for example, older, individuals enduring with HIV or managing residential maltreatment. Inconveniences of this are if the cause neglects to get subsidizing the consideration may not be accessible long haul, additionally because of financing government assistance may not be circulated uniformly the nation over. Notwithstanding this volunteers may need capabilities and preparing. Private Sector, which is benefit making organizations due to their benefit making nature the nature of care can frequently be better in the would like to draw in business, there is additionally a greater amount of a component of decision inside this segment. Albeit like the deliberate part if the business closes the administration gave will be ended, and the private segment is just extremely accessible to those with cash. Casual Sector, this is the place government assistance is given by the family. In spite of the fact that it advances autonomy and sets aside the administration cash it is a lot of a New Right view whereupon the consideration obligations fall on ladies and sometimes small kids who are as a rule ailing in assets. As should be obvious Margaret Thatcher and William Beveridge hugy affected the improvement of the British government assistance state, regardless of whether some would concur or differ that all progressions where positive they have never the less impacted the British society we live in today. In spite of the fact that there is still discussion concerning certain parts of the government assistance state, as of late there has been contention by Iain Duncan Smith, the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions with respect to beneficiaries and their advantages â€Å"Wealthy older individuals who needn't bother with advantages to help with fuel charges, TV licenses or free travel should restore the cash, the work and annuities secretary says. † (BBC, 2013). This has made tremendous debate as individuals feel that after so long of paying into the framework that they are meriting these advantages and may likewise demoralize individuals from paying into the framework in future, this is a circumstance wherein the experimentation of social approach would be appropriate. Reference List: NEF. (2013). Who subsidizes us. [Online]Available: http://www. neweconomics. organization/pages/who-reserves us. [Accessed tenth May 2013]. Large Society Capital. (2013). OUR VISION AND MISSION. [Online] Available from: http://www. bigsocietycapital. com/our-vision-and-mission. [Accessed tenth May 2013]. BBC News UK. (2013). Iain Duncan Smith desires well off old to hand back advantages. [Online] Available from: http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/uk-22327335. [Accessed: tenth May 2013].

Saturday, August 22, 2020

L’Oreal Case Study Essay

This report sees how did L’Oreal, a worldwide organization, dealt with its as of now portfolio just as its recently gained neighborhood brand when entering on another market: China. L’Oreal, a french organization established in 1907, chose toward the finish of 2003 to procure two nearby chinese brands so as to enter the national market: Mininurse and Yu-sai. While this combining is by all accounts a  «win-winâ » bargain, we will take a gander at a few issues L’Oreal was stood up to with: how did the brand dealt with its recently obtained brand, just as what were the chances of development for the partnership. Proposals will likewise be given on how might we have oversee L’Oreal’s previously existing extremely differentiated portfolio in this new market. 2.Background to the Company Established in 1907, L’Oreal is presently dealing with an extremely differentiated portfolio including beauty care products, skin and hair care items just as top of the line design brands, for example, Ralph Lauren. This differentiated portfolio mirrors the brand’s methodology to be as significant as conceivable available and involve each fragment, so as to stay away from rivalry however much as could be expected, strengthen their notoriety world generally and pass on through their diverse brands’ pictures a few societies. For example, Ralph Lauren will pass on an american  «preppyâ » feeling of design, while Lancã'me will pass on a very  «glamorous parisianâ » picture of makeup. Research&Development is a significant speculation for the organization, as it empowers the organization to dispatch creative item on various markets, just as shielding its item from replicating thought its licenses. Moreover, advancement focused on top of the line item is diffused to purchaser items, which empower the brand to bring down the complete expense of R&D. The brand has composed its portfolio utilizing a pyramid, arranging ever of its brands at one phase contingent upon the focused on showcase. 3.Development To create on the Chinese Market, L’Oreal gained two nearby brands. China is conceivably the biggest market on the planet, with expanding life norms, a developing enthusiasm for design and another gathering of individuals shaping a working class ready to pay for restorative items. Chinese market can be partitioned into three fundamental purchasers gatherings, contingent upon rules, for example, their area, their enthusiasm for beauty care products, their ability to pay for remote products†¦(see show 1). This developing enthusiasm for design among China’s occupants, the huge number of potential clients just as the expanding discretionary cashflow among chinese individuals comprise open doors for l’Oreal to consume on the nearby market. GroupLocationCharacteristics High-Income Earners.†¨Aged youthful to center aged.Large/medium measured urban areas all around China.Willing to pay for very good quality extravagance items imported from France, United States, Japan†¦. Medium salary earners.†¨Middle matured to more established women.Large/medium estimated urban communities all around China.Preference for settled residential brands. Transient ladies labourers.†¨Mainly matured 18-30Large/medium estimated urban communities all around China.Do have dispensable salaries. Poor information on makeup, their buys are cost driven. Extremely huge but then undiscovered client base. 4.Discussion How might you see L’Oreal deal with the chinese brand without their chinese organizers? This inquiry prompts a key purpose of this case. For what reason did L’Oreal get those two brands?†¨The primary contention individuals could answer is that L’Oreal needed, as indicated by their worldwide technique, to possess the market however much as could be expected. Notwithstanding, could L’Oreal be truly irritated by those two competitors?†¨Indeed, at a certain point, the Case expresses that the all out incomes of residential brands were less significant than L’Oreal all alone. L’Oreal may have needed this converging so as to utilize the previously existing offices of the two brands for it’s own items. For example Mininurse, with its broad dispersion channel made of 280 000 corners and retail locations the whole way across China, speaks to a previously settled and generally spread dissemination channel for L’Oreal to dispatch any of their items. Moreover, the information Yu-sai created with respect to Chinese’s utilization of restorative would assist the brand with adapting every one of its item to the chinese market, which is totally different from the western market. The two brands have high buyers acknowledgment, with for example Mininurse having a 90% acknowledgment rate among chinese clients, this acknowledgment rate being considerably higher among under twenty clients. This could help L’Oreal to pick up client acknowledgment for their own brands without any problem. We can see this consolidating isn't just about simply securing new brands to immerse the market, yet it is tied in with utilizing two settled brands to dispatch the company’s items, evading limitations, for example, building up a dissemination channel, utilization of showcasing to expand brand recognition†¦. Consequently, what I think L’Oreal will do, is use Mininurse to dispatch their mass market item: Garnier utilizing Mininurse’s high brand acknowledgment and monstrous appropriation organize. The brand will utilize their insight and innovation to improve Mininurse’s items requiring little to no effort. Logically, L’Oreal will presumably change Mininurse into Garnier.†¨This would empower L’Oreal to utilize Mininurse’s high brand acknowledgment and target shoppers would are bound to pay for nearby brands, for example, the undiscovered  «labourer transient ladies marketâ ». (see show 1 for a diagram of the chinese market). How might you oversee L’Oreal’s Portfolio in China with the recently procured brands? I think utilizing Mininurse’s circulation channel for it’s own items is a great thought as it empowers L’Orà ©al to avoid a long advance organizations for the most part to experience when entering another market.†¨However, following L’Orà ©al’s worldwide marking system, L’Orà ©al has no enthusiasm for keeping Mininurse as the items are like Garnier’s items. In that manner, I would in fact continuously substitute Mininurse with Garnier. Concerning sai, I think L’Orà ©al should prop it up with respect to the great monetary consequences of the brands during the previous barely any years (11% of the country’s complete piece of the overall industry) just as the specific brand’s personality. L’Orà ©al can utilize the information Yue-sai Kan has been creating for as far back as twenty years just as the examination office opened in Pudon and apply the information to it’s items on the chinese market. I do think L’Oreal ought to reexamine their choice to prohibit Yue-sai Kan from the organization. L’Oreal could utilize her as a promoting figure, as she is by all accounts significant in the chinese corrective market in regards to the way that she is the individual that advanced makeup thought her various books, TV shows†¦. As expressed in the Case, Yue-Sai’s item were made uniquely for chinese lady. Concerning high number of chinese individuals all around the globe, L’Oreal could begin sending out this neighborhood brand utilizing the brand’s nearby chinese character. This could reflect L’Oreal system to pass on various societies through its broadened portfolio. L’Orà ©al needs to remember that Chinese market is altogether different from the Western’s advertise. The market is diverse by the consumer’s needs, with for example chinese ladies utilizing as much as 18 beautifying agents items every day, just as by the customers items, with for example magnificence models being entirely unexpected than in western nations. How might you see L’Orà ©al keep on developing in China? I think L’Orà ©al in China ought to predominantly concentrate on the residential market, as it is the market with the more potential clients. A brief glance at display 1 gives us that an enormous piece of the chinese market is yet undiscovered. This market, made of youthful workers relocating to huge urban areas, has got extra cash however is essentially cost driven and favor neighborhood brands. L’Orà ©al could without much of a stretch use Mininurse to focus on this market by offering them the nearby part of the brand, and as said beforehand logically substitute Mininurse to Garnier to this market. Utilizing Mininurse to dispatch Garnier would empower L’Orà ©al to utilize Mininurse’s high brand acknowledgment among youngsters ( which is one of the attributes of this market ), with a brand acknowledgment pace of over 96%, and afterward take new pieces of the overall industry.

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Flame Who Lost His Way Essays - Gender Role, Human Behavior

The Flame Who Lost His Way It is beyond the realm of imagination or honorable in standard United States to impersonate scriptural occasions sex job designs. In scriptural occasions, male and female weren't related by sexual orientation as much as they were as indicated by relationship. On account of the enmeshed society where individuating was not done and wasn't viewed as ordinary or sound we can't as people in the United States start to mirror not to mention totally comprehend sexual orientation job designs in scriptural occasions. Ladies were viewed as sisters, spouses, moms, girls and so on not as ladies in the feeling of sexual orientation. Men were likewise wrapped inside relationship as sibling, spouse, father, child and so on not as maleness. Relationship characterized who they were as an individual in relationship. An individual was generally somebody outside the gathering, substandard, wiped out or inadmissible. In the United States we esteem independence. We have entire callings devoted explicitly to mend the individuals who are not people in some sense. We esteem the self-alone, not as much as relationship. What our identity is isn't bound in what relationship we are in yet as a rule in our job. In light of this fundamental distinction in direction as individuals we ought not and couldn't mirror scriptural occasions sexual orientation job designs. At the point when we as Western scholars read the Bible through our United States, individual elevating focal points we will in general view the way of life of the old Near East as brutal and dehumanizing for certain classes, particularly ladies. We feel they are treated as substandard and we can't see how a thoughtful God couldn't just permit yet additionally organization such a partial society. Be that as it may, here is the place we misconstrue the way of life and ladies. Is it true that they are dealt with second rate or simply unique? The presuppositions of Hebrew culture with respect to people lead to the comprehension of the jobs of each sex. As indicated by Proverbs ladies were anything but difficult to fall into infidelity, in this way, men were to keep them unadulterated as per the relationship they had with the lady, as father or spouse. Similarly, men were comprehended to be solid pioneers along these lines, they controlled parts of government and strict service. Utilizin g our perspective we can't move beyond the way that they are incorrect. Men are the same amount of to fault and can without much of a stretch fall into infidelity as ladies, we might suspect. We likewise can name a lady who was a vastly improved pioneer than numerous men we know. Be that as it may, does this mean the Hebrews weren't right, have things changed or perhaps with our diverse perspective on the truth we can't see how they reached their decisions. The last is likely the nearest to reality. Since we have come to understand that the old Hebrews were out and out unexpected individuals in comparison to we are today as indicated by way of life, law, mentality and even the meaning of libertarian, how does this influence the scriptural message or philosophy? Because of the diverse social comprehension of sexual orientation jobs would it be advisable for us to completely ignore everything in the Bible that alludes explicitly to sex? Would it be advisable for us to attempt to meet those desires inspite of the acknowledgment that our Western attitude isn't set up that way? Or on the other hand, would it be advisable for us to attempt to comprehend those sections as indicated by the way of life that it was addressing and afterward make application that will be adequate inside our own perspective? I accept the last is the main answer that offers equity to the Word and fits with us as Americans. Is this trade off? Indeed, it is. Does it bargain the message or good? I don't accept s o. The Bible was composed to lead the lost to a relationship with God and understanding it inside its social setting it doing only that. Thusly, the Bible's message isn't explicitly bound up with antiquated Near Eastern sex job designs. The manner in which the story is told may be however. As skillful scriptural researchers, or if nothing else attempting to be we should and I stress must comprehend the social encompassing the message, just as, recognize our own inclinations and focal points that we bring to the Word. In the event that we would first be able to understand that as male/female, wedded/single, tall/short, fat/slim and so forth hues our view not just as we act in our Western culture yet additionally in

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Good Luck Trump and Friends - Free Essay Example

In light of the Cohen plea deal and the Manafort conviction, President Trump is in a precarious spot. Or is he? Better yet, is Trump closer to being impeached or are we just grasping at straws? Michael Cohen, Trumps former personal attorney, and Paul Manafort, Trumps former campaign chairman, have made headlines across the nation lately. On August 21, Cohen pleaded guilty on eight felony charges, including tax fraud and bank fraud, and was charged on violating election laws by engineering hush money payments to two women who claimed to have had affairs with Trump years back. Almost at the same moment, Manafort was convicted on eight counts and faces a maximum of 80 years in prison for five charges of tax fraud, one charge of hiding foreign bank accounts and two counts of bank fraud. This is a big deal. But what will it mean? To start, this Cohen-Manafort investigation is being run on two tracks: a political and legal track. The latter is wrapping up. The political one, however, just keeps ramping up. Perhaps the presidents impeachment depends on the Cohen plea deal and the Manafort investigation, along with special counsel, Robert Muellers Russia investigation report, which is expected to release later on this year. Right now, only Congress can decide which steps to take. But together, the Cohen plea deal, Manaforts conviction and Muellers investigation could point to the presidents political demise. Trump as a sitting president cannot be indicted, even though there is continuous debate about that. In order to bump Trump from office, the only path to take is impeachment. In the future, near or far, Congress could initiate impeachment procedures, that is if Democrats outnumber Republicans this year (which is very likely). A generic ballot from FiveThirtyEight, a website that focuses on political opinion analysis, politics and economics, shows that as of September 2, 2018, 48.8 percent of registered voters would support Democrats in a congressional election. For Republicans, 39.4 percent would support. In May of this year, The Economist revealed its 2018 election model. It gave Democrats a 65 percent chance of retaking House majority, pegging the party at 222 seats. It seems that the Democrats uphill House climb isnt as steep as everyone thought.Though these cases are closely related to Trump, there are still no charges against him yet. As this investigation continues to unfold, the truth is just waiting to hit newspaper headlines for the public in big, black, and bold letters, reading, Supreme Court finds Trump guilty of collusion. Its an administration mired in political scandal after political scandal, so there is no doubt that a negative conclusion is on the horizon. The suspicious and unscrupulous behavior in the White House should not be tolerated. As a constituent of this nation, I would like to be represented by an administration who focuses on the well-being of the people. A well-rounded president who respects all. After Trump, I hope for a competent and sophisticated successor. The future is hopeful for an impeachment. But with so many moving parts in this exhausting investigation, all we can do is wait and see.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Style, Point of View, Form and Structure of Native...

Richard Wright, in his novel, Native Son, favors short, simple, blunt sentences that help maintain the quick narrative pace of the novel, at least in the first two books. For example, consider the following passage: He licked his lips; he was thirsty. He looked at his watch; it was ten past eight. He would go to the kitchen and get a drink of water and then drive the car out of the garage. Wrights imagery is often brutal and elemental, as in his frequently repeated references to fire and snow and Marys bloody†¦show more content†¦But Wright goesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; beyond merely presenting social data. At times Native Son seems morenbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; like a nightmare than like social science. Note that Wright was alsonbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; attracted to the horror and detective stories of Edgar Allan Poe.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;One of Wrights stated goals was to make readers feel the heatnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; of the Daltons furnace and the cold of a Chicago winter. But henbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; also makes the cold and heat symbols of the external forces alignednbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; against Bigger and of the powerful emotions raging within him. Othernbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp; patterns of imagery that appear throughout the novel include beastsnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; (the rat, Bigger as a hunted animal, Bigger portrayed in thenbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; newspapers as a gorilla); suffocation (the fire being choked out bynbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; the accumulated ashes, BiggersShow MoreRelated A Marxist Reading of Native Son Essay4809 Words   |  20 PagesA Marxist Reading of Native Son In the Communist Manifesto Karl Marx states clearly that history is a series of class struggles over the means of production. Whoever controls the means of production also controls society and is able to force their set of ideas and beliefs onto the lower class. The present dominant class ideology is, as it has been since the writing of the United States Constitution, the ideology of the upper-class, Anglo-Saxon male. Obviously, when the framers spoke of equalityRead MoreAnalysis Of James Wright s The Blues Essay2277 Words   |  10 Pagesnotes, Burke and Ellison had the closest intellectual and social relationship when Burke was writing A Rhetoric of Motives—and, I would add, when Ellison was writing Invisible Man. 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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scopeRead MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words   |  534 PagesVIEW Strategic Human Resource Management Taken from: Strategic Human Resource Management, Second Edition by Charles R. Greer Copyright  © 2001, 1995 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Pearson Education Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Compilation Copyright  © 2003 by Pearson Custom Publishing All rights reserved. This copyright covers material written expressly for this volume by the editor/s as well as the compilation itself. 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This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Poverty Of The United States - 1663 Words

What is the reason for not ending the world-leading problem in the United States and in other countries? Are we capable of ending a monster that has taken the lives of children? Poverty is the monster that society worries about, especially the individuals who have to endure going days without eating and have to live in horrifying conditions. The United States has the world’s second highest poverty rate among children, and the children have no way of defeating it. Many different organizations, including the government, try to tackle and improve poverty rates. Yes, we have the technology and resources to terminate this problem, but the government is not fighting hard enough. Many people try to improve poverty rates among other things but†¦show more content†¦The lack of growth and development begin to occur when the body does not take in enough calcium. Calcium is very important part for the body to function because it has the function to keep bones strong and witho ut calcium the bones will become weak and break easily. Also, it will lead to stunted growth in the body and the person will not be able to grow properly. In addition, malnutrition can occur when children or the poor community does not get enough to eat and is requiring the need of nutritions and other minerals. Suffering from malnutrition will cause extensive amount of disease to manifest in the human body. Also, it will be harder for the body to fight off disease and people will become more vulnerable to catching different type of diseases. Pedro A Sanchez stated, â€Å"The death rate from diseases such as lower respiratory infection, malaria, and measles†¦Undernourished people infected with HIV/AIDS develop the full symptoms† (1). The poor population is longing for the access to healthy food in order to prevent terrible disease like this from occurring. It is very hard to treat and prevent these different variety of disease from happening without having the mone y to get the proper care and medical attention. Not only does malnutrition and not acquiring enough nutrients leads to theShow MoreRelatedThe Poverty Of The United States1727 Words   |  7 PagesPoverty defined by the American Heritage Dictionary is â€Å"lack of the means of providing material needs or comforts† (Hirokazu Yoshikawa, 2012). Poverty in the United States is an issue that is often times overlooked because the focus of poverty is on developing and struggling countries. People often think America does not experience poverty because it is such a thriving country. The problem with this is that America is indeed struggling with poverty: â€Å"there are currently 488 counties in America whereRead MoreThe Poverty Of The United States1548 Words   |  7 Pagescitizens in poverty has risen. Several organizations have been set up to help those who suffer from poverty and provide their everyday needs. There are always ways where a community can help eliminate the am ount of people suffering poverty. Government has an influence on how much money flow there is in the United States such as the FED, which was created to help maintain a stable monetary and financial system and control the money supply. People themselves can also help from falling into poverty, butRead MorePoverty Of The United States1408 Words   |  6 PagesWhen people hear the word poverty many people think of the bad connotations that come with it like, smelly homeless people that are crackheads and disease holders. Some people may even think they are uneducated or not hard working enough and rather ask for money instead of trying to get a job. Although a small portion of that may be true to some homeless people due to addictions on drugs and the toll it takes on their lives. The majority of homeless people are either veterans or immigrants, who findRead MorePoverty in the United States755 Words   |  4 PagesPoverty in the United States is getting in inferior quality every day and nothing is being done about it. Many people who want to help the poor, but no one knows exactly how to help them. A primary reason for people not taking action is because of lack of information that is provided about issues on poverty. Poverty is defined as the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. According to the U.S. Census Bureau data released Tuesday September 13thRead MorePoverty Of The United States Essay1369 Words   |  6 PagesPoverty within the United States is defined as â€Å"having an income below a federally determined poverty threshold. † Poverty thresholds were developed by the United States government in the 60s. Over time these thresholds are adjusted to account for inflation; it is typical to adjust the poverty threshold levels annually. They represent the government’s estimate of the point below which a family has insufficient resources to meet their basic needs. Any family with le ss income than that establishedRead MoreThe Poverty Of The United States Essay1385 Words   |  6 Pages The Character of Poverty in America Poverty has always been a key factor in United States History. Ever sense Americas birth there have been groups affected by poverty, but the forms of the poverty that affected these groups have changed as well as the nature of poverty itself in the USA. The abolition of slavery, the forced assimilation of native Americans, and mass immigration changed character of poverty within the united states change due to an evolution from agriculture to industry and a changeRead MoreThe Poverty Of The United States1531 Words   |  7 Pagessuch dialog, topics on the increasing and rather consistent levels of poverty in some regions in America are touched on as well. Poverty is defined as a condition where one’s basics needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met (What Is Poverty? â€Å"). From sea to shining sea, more than 15 percent of the American population live in poverty, a total of people over 46 million. Many who live in poverty within the United States live in areas that were once thriving from the country’s economic growthRead MoreThe Poverty Of The United States1746 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is poverty? A question most Americans will not have to think twice before answering. Poverty is, of course, simply a lack of money. The views of a specific person will defer when politics or morals are introduced, however, the idea stays the same. Those in poverty are there because they have less money than what has been decided to be livable. Poverty has changed significantly over the last two hundred years in the United States, and yet, the measurement has hardly changed since it was createdRead MorePoverty Of The United States1475 Words   |  6 Pages â€Æ' Poverty in the United States is defined as a social problem. As outlined in the text, a social problem is â€Å"a condition that undermines the well-being of some or all members of a society and is usually a matter of public controversy†. It is easy to see that there is a large economic divide in the United States, but with only a small percentage of people in the highest income stratification and the vast majority struggling to get by, the majority of United States citizens agree that there is tooRead MorePoverty in the United States1061 Words   |  5 PagesThe Background of Poverty in America In the United States, there are about more than forty-six million people living in impoverished conditions today. Poverty is a major conflict issue in this country amongst people who are part of the lower class because American families always had a hard time making ends meet, even before the Great Recession began. Living in poverty puts them at a disadvantage because they have to choose between necessitates like health care, child care, and food in order to

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Molecular Biology Genes & Diseases

Question: Discuss about theMolecular Biology for Genes Diseases. Answer: Introduction The insulin-like growth factor family consists of three peptide hormones that include insulin, IGF-1 and IGH-2. They have 50% of their amino acid sequences in common (Le Roith 1997). They play a critical role in growth, differentiation and metabolism in almost every cell of the human body. Due to its diverse and far reaching roles it has been associated with several diseases and disorders and is a potential target for therapeutic intervention (Forbes 2016). IGF signaling is associated with decreased cell death and increased cell proliferation. Activation of IGF-1R leads to the activation of two pathways, PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK. PI3K/AKT pathway ultimately leads to decreased apoptosis, increased glucose metabolism, increased protein synthesis. On the other hand Ras/MAPK pathway leads to increased cellular proliferation by activating different transcription factors, such as ELK1. Cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion have been related to the activation of IGF-1R in many studies previously (Sachdev and Yee 2007). Cancers in lung, breast, colon, prostate are showed to be associated with increased level of plasma IGF (Pollak, Schernhammer and Hankinson 2004). Other members of IGF pathway are also proved to be involved with malignancies. This provides a way to treat cancers via modulating IGF pathway and various ligands involved with it. Drug resistance by tumors is one of the critical conditions in new age cancer treatment. As IGF pathway is involved in cell proliferation it shows a new era of treating these kinds of situations. Many studies have shown that modulating IGF pathway has promising effect in these cases (Denduluri et al. 2015). Ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women. In nearly half of ovarian and breast cancer patients, RAB25 mRNAs were found to be selectivey overexpressed at stage 3 and 4 serous epitheli al ovarian cancers in comparison to other genes located in the amplified region. Decreased expression of two proteins BAK and BAX were found to be associated with an inhibition of apoptosis in such cells. Simultaneously activation of PI3K/AKT pathway provided potential mechanisms to employ the effects of RAB25 on tumor aggressiveness (Lee et al. 2015). Involvement of PI3k/AKT pathway in the RAB25 related tumor aggressiveness leads to the way to treatment by modulating this pathway. Recently various evidences show that IGF-1 promotes atherosclerotic plaque stability and consequently reduces atherosclerosis in animal models. IGF-1 induces reduction of oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, proinflammatory signaling, and endothelial dysfunction, that helps prevent the disease. Aging has been widely linked with increased vascular oxidative stress and certain vascular diseases (Barzilai et al. 2012). It has been postulated IGF-1 may play a crucial role on vascular aging processes. There are various evidences that IGF-1 exerts pleiotropic effects on the vasculature resulting in reduced vascular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammatory signaling pathway (Higashi et al. 2012). By modulating IGF signaling disease related to stress or premature cell death or decreased cell death can be prevented in future. Further studies on signaling pathway of IGF show its potential role in regulation of autoimmune diseases. Though this area of treatment requires a lot more research and practical approaches, the role of IGF signaling is competent enough. Studies show that IGF-I can potentially protect animal models from developing insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus (Gao et al. 2011). On the contrary, patients with Graves disease have shown an overexpression of the IGF-1R in many cell types and antibodies against the receptor were prevalent in such patients. The frequency of IGF-IR positive B and T cells were found to be relatively high in patients with the disease. Hence, as IGF-1 and IGF-1R is found to be linked with the mentioned autoimmune disease modulation of the pathway might be a potential therapeutic target for managing the diseases and alleviating the health consequences (Smith 2010). The modulation of IGF pathway opens new ways to treat various diseases like different types of cancer, cellular stress-related diseases and immunological diseases also. It depends totally on massive research and practically showing the results on animal models to prove the modulation of IGF pathway actually showing some positive results. Comparative Genomic Hybridization: Comparative Genomic hybridization is a comparative study of two genomes by in situ hybridization technique that allows detection of differences in DNA sequences between the two genomes. Two genomes, one study and one reference genomes are differentially labeled after being denatured into single stranded DNA (Pinkel and Albertson 2005). These two genomes are then hybridized to normal metaphase spreads or to microarray. Ratio of the fluorescence intensity are then measured And plotted on a graphical manner. The graph can reveal locations of copy number changes in along the target chromosome or DNA sequences. It has been extensively used to identify genetic differences between normal cells and certain diseased cells mostly in cancer cell biology. It efficiently detects any gain or loss of genetic material in human genetic disorders by comparing the same with a reference genome, often a relevant normal cell genome. Primarily the effect of stable expression of Rab25, a hallmark of cancer has been assayed in all the parts of Figure 2. Other hallmarks that were also assayed were Bak and Bax nuclear proteins. Bak and Bax are two nuclear-encoded proteins that are capable of moving through mitochondrial membrane and induce cell death by apoptosis. Phosphorylation of AKT was also assayed during stable expression of Rab25 and in presence of RNAi. AKT or protein kinase B (PKB) is a protein kinase that plays key roles several cellular functions including apoptosis. Viral-mediated transduction is the most potent technique to produce stable cell lines with a overexpressing protein. Vectors are utilized for this purpose. Vectors are autonomously replicating DNA molecules that can be used to transfer DNA fragments to cells of interest. For transfecting mammalian cells, vectors derived from mammalian viruses are used that include Simian viruses (SV40), polyomavirus, herpesvirus and papovirus (Khan 2013). The Rab25 gene can be inserted into any one of the vector mentioned and the same gene can be transferred to an appropriate mammalian cell line by viral transfection. Mammalian cell lines that are extensively used for this purpose are HeLa, HEK293T, U2OS so on and so forth. Compared to transient transfection, stable transfected cell lines are produced to analyze impact of altered gene expression over a long time period. Generally, antibiotic resistance or fluorescent reporter cell markers are incorporated into plasmid or vector DNA to create selectio n criteria. Clonal Selection can be done by appropriate selection controls. The selected colony is used to produce monoclonal cell line development and consequently producing a stable cell line generation. The expression and stability is checked on a regular basis. The construct expression is then validated by qRT-PCR and/or Western blot techniques. Assay (e) was performed to evaluate the levels of Bak and Bax proteins in the four different ovarian cancer cell lines namely A2780 and hey and immortalized ovarian cancer cell lines T29 and T80 where there is overexpression of the protein Rab25. Bak protein levels are found to be lower in Rab25 expressing A2780, HEY and T29 cells as compared to pcDNA cells. In T80 cell lines Bak was overexpressed showing that Bak levels are regulated by other factors in certain cells. Bax levels were low in A2780 and Hey cells but not in T29 and T80 cells. In assay (f) Bak and Bax levels were measured in A2780 cells were Rab25 expression is downregulated by RNAi. The downregulation of Rab25 nullified Rab25 mediated inhibition of Bak and Bax and hence the two protein levels were found to be high in the cell lines. Bak and Bax are two nuclear proteins that can travel to mitochondrial outer membrane upon activation of relevant signaling pathway and is essential for mitochondrial permiabilisation during apoptosis (Dewson and Kluck 2009). These two proteins play a significant role in intrinsic apoptotic pathway in mammalian cells and as a result they have being extensively studied for therapeutic purposes to block apoptosis. Motility of cells where Rab25 is overexpressed or knocked down can be assayed by standard apoptotic assay methods. Cleavage of the genomic DNA into discrete fragments and consequently membrane disintegration are key features that occur during apoptosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. DNA cleavage being hallmark of apoptosis is often measured to assay apoptotic cell death. The DNA fragments can be assayed by ELISA quantification of histone-complexed DNA fragments. Furthermore, caspases are a class of protein that are expressed and involved in the early stages of apoptosis. Activation of the caspase proteins can be assay to determine the stage of apoptosis in a cell (Suzuki, Nakabayashi and Takahashi 2001). This can be done by in vitro enzyme assay or by detection of cleavage of an in vivo caspase substrate. Furthermore to assess the motility transwell migration assay can be performed to assess cell movement and migration. In Transwell migration assay there are two chambers; the cell s uspension placed on the upper chamber and chemoattractants are placed in the lower chamber. Cells that are motile will migrate through the membrane and get attached to the lower side of the upper chamber; non-migratory cells will remain on the upper chamber. The migratory cells can then be labeled and quantified to assess the motility of the cell lines with overexpressed and knocked out Rab25 protein. References Barzilai, N., Huffman, D.M., Muzumdar, R.H. and Bartke, A., 2012. The critical role of metabolic pathways in aging.Diabetes,61(6), pp.1315-1322. Denduluri, S.K., Idowu, O., Wang, Z., Liao, Z., Yan, Z., Mohammed, M.K., Ye, J., Wei, Q., Wang, J., Zhao, L. and Luu, H.H., 2015. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in tumorigenesis and the development of cancer drug resistance.Genes Diseases,2(1), pp.13-25. Dewson, G. and Kluck, R.M., 2009. Mechanisms by which Bak and Bax permeabilise mitochondria during apoptosis.Journal of cell science,122(16), pp.2801-2808. Forbes, B.E., 2016. Two years in IGF research.Growth Hormone IGF Research. Gao, J., Chesebrough, J.W., Cartlidge, S.A., Ricketts, S.A., Incognito, L., Veldman-Jones, M., Blakey, D.C., Tabrizi, M., Jallal, B., Trail, P.A. and Coats, S., 2011. Dual IGF-I/IIneutralizing antibody MEDI-573 potently inhibits IGF signaling and tumor growth.Cancer research,71(3), pp.1029-1040. Higashi, Y., Sukhanov, S., Anwar, A., Shai, S.Y. and Delafontaine, P., 2012. Aging, atherosclerosis, and IGF-1.The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, p.gls102. Khan, K.H., 2013. Gene expression in mammalian cells and its applications.Adv Pharm Bull,3(2), pp.257-63. Lee, J.S., Kang, J.H., Boo, H.J., Hwang, S.J., Hong, S., Lee, S.C., Park, Y.J., Chung, T.M., Youn, H., Lee, S.M. and Kim, B.J., 2015. STAT3-mediated IGF-2 secretion in the tumour microenvironment elicits innate resistance to anti-IGF-1R antibody.Nature communications,6. Pinkel, D. and Albertson, D.G., 2005. Comparative genomic hybridization.Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet.,6, pp.331-354. Pollak, M.N., Schernhammer, E.S. and Hankinson, S.E., 2004. Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia.Nature Reviews Cancer,4(7), pp.505-518. Sachdev, D. and Yee, D., 2007. Disrupting insulin-like growth factor signaling as a potential cancer therapy.Molecular cancer therapeutics,6(1), pp.1-12. Smith, T.J., 2010. Insulin-like growth factor-I regulation of immune function: a potential therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases?.Pharmacological reviews,62(2), pp.199-236. Suzuki, Y., Nakabayashi, Y. and Takahashi, R., 2001. Ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein promotes proteasomal degradation of caspase-3 and enhances its anti-apoptotic effect in Fas-induced cell death.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,98(15), pp.8662-8667.